Mammal Life List

Updated May 13, 2024

This is my list of all the wild mammals I have recorded while traveling for Notes from the Road.


Marsupials: These mammals give birth to relatively undeveloped young, which then complete their development in a pouch. Examples include kangaroos, koalas, and opossums.

Great TinamouTinamus major

Central American Wooly Opossum Caluromys derbianus

Wooly Opossum

I first saw these incredible marsupials on Isla Bastimentos, Panama.

Common OpossumDidelphis marsupialis

Water OpposumChironectes minimus


Xenarthrans: Characterized by unique skeletal features, including extra joints in their backbone. Includes anteaters, sloths, and armadillos.

Northern TamanduaTamandua mexicana

Brown-throated slothBradypus variegatus

Brown-throated sloth

Hoffmann's two-toed slothCholoepus hoffmanni


Primates: Includes humans, apes, monkeys, and prosimians.

Barbary MacaqueMacaca sylvanus

Black HowlerAlouatta caraya

Black-mantled TamarinLeontocebus nigricollis

Central American squirrel monkeySaimiri oerstedii

Tufted CapuchinSapajus apella

Cotton-top TamarinSaguinus oedipus

Cotton-top Tamarin

I wrote about Cotton-tops in detail in my notes on the Caribbean lowlands of Colombia.

Geoffroy's spider monkeyAteles geoffroyi

Humboldt's squirrel monkeySaimiri cassiquiarensis

Humboldt's squirrel monkey

Red-bellied titi monkeyPlecturocebus moloch

Red-bellied titi monkey

Mantled HowlerAlouatta palliata

Mantled Howler Monkey

Panamanian Night MonkeyAotus zonalis

Panamanian Night Monkey

Purús Red HowlerAlouatta puruensis

Purús Red Howler

Spix's night monkeyAotus vociferans

Central American White-faced CapuchinCebus imitator

White Faced Capuchin

Photographed in Soberania National Park.


Rodents: Largest order of mammals, including mice, rats, squirrels, beavers, and many others.

Arctic Ground SquirrelUrocitellus parryii

Arctic Ground Squirrel

Black AgoutiDasyprocta fuliginosa

Black-tailed Prairie DogCynomys ludovicianus

CapybaraHydrochoerus hydrochaeris

Capybaras playing in the river

Central American AgoutiDasyprocta punctata


Desert Kangaroo RatDipodomys deserti

North American BeaverCastor canadensis

California Ground SquirrelOtospermophilus beecheyi

Douglas SquirrelTamiasciurus douglasii

Santander Dwarf SquirrelMicrosciurus santanderensis

Eastern Fox SquirrelSciurus niger

Eastern Fox Squirrel

Eastern Gray SquirrelSciurus carolinensis

Eastern Red SquirrelTamiasciurus hudsonicus

Golden-mantled Ground SquirrelCallospermophilus lateralis

Harris' Antelope SquirrelAmmospermophilus harrisii

Hopi ChipmunkNeotamias rufus

Least ChipmunkNeotamias minimus

Nutria or coypuMyocastor coypus

American Red SquirrelTamiasciurus hudsonicus

Red-rumped agoutiDasyprocta leporina

Red-eared Agouti

Red-tailed SquirrelSciurus granatensis

Rock SquirrelOtospermophilus variegatus

Round-tailed Ground SquirrelXerospermophilus tereticaudus

Round Tailed Ground Squirrel

Variegated SquirrelSciurus variegatoides

Thirteen-Lined Ground SquirrelIctidomys tridecemlineatus

Townsend's ChipmunkNeotamias townsendii

White-tailed Antelope SquirrelAmmospermophilus leucurus

Yellow-bellied MarmotMarmota flaviventris


Lagomorphs: Includes rabbits, hares, and pikas.

American PikaOchotona princeps

Black-tailed JackrabbitLepus californicus

Desert Cottontail Sylvilagus audubonii

Marsh RabbitSylvilagus palustris

Marsh Rabbit

Common TapetiSylvilagus brasiliensis

Western Brush RabbitSylvilagus bachmani


Insectivores: Includes shrews, moles, and hedgehogs.


Bats: Only mammals capable of sustained flight.

Lesser Bulldog BatNoctilio albiventris

Lesser Sac-winged BatSaccopteryx leptura

Lesser long-tongued batChoeroniscus minor

Little Brown BatMyotis lucifugus

Orange Nectar BatLonchophylla robusta

Orange Nectar-Feeding Bat

Photographed near El Valle de Anton, Panama.

Tent-making BatUroderma bilobatum

Western Small-footed BatMyotis ciliolabrum

Western PipistrelleParastrellus hesperus

Greater Sac-winged BatSaccopteryx bilineata


Carnivorans: Includes cats, dogs, bears, weasels, and seals.

American Black BearUrsus americanus

CoyoteCanis latrans


CougarPuma concolor

European MinkMustela lutreola

Gray FoxUrocyon cinereoargenteus

KinkajouPotos flavus


Kit FoxVulpes macrotis

American MinkNeogale vison

Northern RaccoonProcyon lotor

Northern Raccoon

Red FoxVulpes vulpes

North American River OtterLontra canadensis

North American River Otter

Sea OtterEnhydra lutris

Small Indian MongooseUrva auropunctata

Striped Hog-Nosed SkunkConepatus semistriatus

TayraEira barbara

Western-Spotted SkunkSpilogale gracilis

White-nosed CoatimundiNasua narica


Odd-toed ungulates: Includes horses, zebras, rhinoceroses, and tapirs.

ElkCervus canadensis

MooseAlces alces

Mule Deer Odocoileus hemionus

Mule Deer

White-tailed DeerOdocoileus virginianus

White-tailed Deer


Even-toed ungulates: Includes pigs, deer, cattle, giraffes, and hippopotamuses.

Bighorn SheepOvis canadensis

American BisonBison bison

CaribouRangifer tarandus

Caribou in Nome

Collared PeccaryDicotyles tajacu

MuskoxOvibos moschatus


I wrote about my encounter with a male muskox in Midnight Road to Beringia.

PronghornAntilocapra americana


Photographed while on the Loneliest Road in Nevada.

White-lipped PeccaryTayassu pecari


Cetaceans: Includes whales, dolphins, and porpoises.

Blue WhaleBalaenoptera musculus

Common Bottlenose DolphinTursiops truncatus

Dall's PorpoisePhocoenoides dalli

Dall's Porpoise

Humpback WhaleMegaptera novaeangliae

Long-beaked Common DolphinDelphinus delphis

Fin WhaleBalaenoptera physalus

Gray WhaleEschrichtius robustus

Harbour PorpoisePhocoena phocoena

Pacific White-sided DolphinLagenorhynchus obliquidens

Sei WhaleBalaenoptera borealis


Pinnipeds: Includes seals, sea lions, and walruses.

California Sea LionZalophus californianus

Northern Elephant SealMirounga angustirostris

Harbor SealPhoca vitulina

Harbor Seal

Hawaiian Monk SealNeomonachus schauinslandi

Northern Fur SealCallorhinus ursinus

Spotted SealPhoca largha

Stellar Sea LionEumetopias jubatus

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